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Government uses race categories it admits are not scientific.

Written By Kenneth Brooks on 04-23-2012 | in Government, Ethics, Race, Democracy, Human Relations, Critical Thinking, Economics,

American society constructed illogical justifications for socioeconomic inequality based on race the past 236 years. However, a current federal directive describing White, but not Black, as a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Africa is a racist rant of unbelievable absurdity.

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB ) approved Directive No. 15, "Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting" on May 12, 1977. It defined basic racial and ethnic categories for Federal statistics and program administrative reporting as follows:

American Indian or Alaskan Native A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North America, and who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliations or community recognition.

Asian or Pacific Islander A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands, and Samoa.

Black A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.

Hispanic A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.

White A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.

By use, Directive No. 15 defined race to mean a class of persons having origins in any of the original peoples of a continent or land area. It asserted this meaning in descriptions of American Indian, Asian, and White. However, it used a circular description for Black, "A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa." This description excludes Black as a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Africa, or any place. It excludes from Black the descriptive meaning of being a race and suggests they are rootless people.

In contrast, Directive No. 15 describes White as a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, Middle East, and North Africa. However, Middle East and North Africa are only Eurocentric labels for southwest areas of Asia and northern areas of Africa. Therefore, it describes White as a person having origins in any of original peoples of Asia with Asians and the only race having origins in the original people of Africa.

OMB Directive No. 15's admits, "These classifications should not be interpreted as being scientific or anthropological in nature. . . They have been developed in response to needs expressed by both the executive branch and the Congress to provide for the collection and use of compatible, nonduplicated, [sic] exchangeable racial and ethnic data by Federal agencies."

A theory has questionable logic that decides race classifications based on what people originally lived in certain places on earth. The disclaimer affirms that Directive No. 15 did not even have a scientific or anthropological basis for the meaning of race-deciding the original peoples of a continent or area. Therefore, government agencies spend billions of dollars reporting scientific interpretations of race data the directive says they should not interpreted as having scientific or anthropological support.

The human and money costs America allows from racial prejudice is irrational social policy. However, a social policy approaches mania when it intentionally creates those costs promoting racial prejudice based on race classifications the creator of the classifications says government should not interpret as being scientific or anthropological in nature.

The OMB reviewed the race directive in 1997. Nevertheless, it retained the Black and other descriptions despite some reviewers' recommendations for change. The Executive Department should repeal OMB Directive No. 15. Congress, State and local agencies should revoke all reports and analysis based on race classifications constructed without a scientific basis.

Americans' reasoning ability

Written By Kenneth Brooks on 04-10-2012 | in Race, Democracy, Critical Thinking, Economics,

Schools and colleges scheduled more classes in critical thinking to improve Americans’ analytical reasoning skills. The plan is not working according to employers and academic survey findings. It fails because reasoning ability is more than a formula for manipulating information to a conclusion as some schools teach. Reasoning ability is part philosophy of open-minded inquisitiveness. Most public school and colleges students graduate with poor reasoning ability for the same reason they graduate poor mathematics skills. The courses teach them to memorize and manipulate formulas and techniques without understanding math and reasoning principles. In addition, they teach other courses that encourage set beliefs, prejudgment, and fantasy as the foundation for thinking rather than use of analytical reasoning. Attitude affects reasoning ability more than facts do because it sets the reasoning environment. Set belief and fantasy result in close-mined prejudice. Prejudice prevents objective or impartial consideration of a subject or issue. It often influences people’s worldview so they are incapable of considering alternative views. They believe their worldview is correct and that other people that disagree attack them unfairly. You know people a society have reasoning problems if: 1. They believe they are a society of diverse Asian, black, or white racial groups based on the fantasy each group inherited continental cultures of Asia, Africa, and Europe although the people living on those continents do not embrace one culture. They believe this despite the many wars fought among the people on all three continents over political and economic differences during the past 236 years since America became a nation. 2. They live in a constitutional republic with three branches of federal government and fifty state governments. Nevertheless, they hold the President responsible for just about everything that affect the state of the union like unemployment, interests rates, home values, and trade shortfalls as if he or she were a sovereign ruler. 3. They believe their nation is a beacon of freedom although it fought four major wars in foreign nations during the past 60 years, two without provocation, and none of them providing a definitive positive result. 4. They believe their nation can spend billions of dollars each year on hundreds of military bases around the world defending other nations—most of them economic competitors—without adversely affecting their economy. 5. They complain that Congress and State Legislatures’ perform poorly, but vote to retain the same people in office for decades. 6. They complain about high tax rates, but pay their public servants higher wages than warranted and more than workers in private business receive for similar work. 7. They spend more to imprison people for using or selling recreational drugs, about three times as much, as they do to educate their children. 8. They deny enrollment in their most prestigious public universities, tax-supported, to their children so they can enroll students from foreign nations—their economic competitors. 9. They take second or third mortgages on their home to buy automobiles, buy furniture, or pay vacation costs. 10. They believe employers should pay employees wages and benefits based on employees’ needs for income and not based on the value of employees’ labor and skills to the business.


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